Posts in category GMD-Tech

Single-Phase Transformer Harmonics Pr...

Single-Phase Transformer Harmonics Produced During Geomagnetic Disturbances: Theory, Modeling, and Monitoring

The main purpose of this paper is to provide a methodology to monitor harmonics produced by power transformers during geomagnetic disturbances. The advocated scheme leverages the existing infrastructure and is based on the embedded operating quantities of microprocessor-based differential protection relays. The characteristics of single-phase transformer magnetizing current are discussed. The second harmonic signature is […]

GIC in Future Large-Scale Power Grids...

GIC in Future Large-Scale Power Grids: An analysis of the problem.

The power grid is the spine of the energy revolution and social progress. With microgrid technology gradually coming into maturity and offshore wind power continuously developing, the development of the future power grid will be the result of the combination of an ultralarge-scale backbone grid and distributed microgrids. Microgrids will be the power supplies for […]

Real-Time Management of Geomagnetic D...

Real-Time Management of Geomagnetic Disturbances: Hydro One’s eXtreme Space Weather control room tools.

Dusty records of Ontario Hydro?s activities in the study of geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) and their effects on the power system go as far back as the late 1970s. In the early 1980s, a network of four GIC monitors was in place long before the notorious March 1989 geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) event that caused the […]

Mitigating Geomagnetic Disturbances: ...

Mitigating Geomagnetic Disturbances: A summary of Dominion Virginia Power’s efforts.

The Sun, the only star in our solar system, is an essential energy source for all human activities as well as the entire Earth biosphere. Galileo discovered the existence of sunspots in 1610, and 200 years later, Schwabe proved that our home star?s activities follow a cycle of 11 years. Using high-tech devices, scientists and […]

Geomagnetic Disturbance: A comprehens...

Geomagnetic Disturbance: A comprehensive approach by American Electric Power to address the impacts.

American Electric Power (AEP), one of the largest electric utilities in the United States, operates the nation?s largest electricity transmission system with a nearly 40,000-mi network in 11 states, connecting more than 5,000 substations, among which more than 800 are 138 kV and above. Per the recently approved North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) geomagnetic […]

Modeling and Analysis of GMD Effects ...

Modeling and Analysis of GMD Effects on Power Systems: An overview of the impact on large-scale power systems.

Geomagnetically induced currents (GICs), caused by geomagnetic disturbances (GMDs) (Figure 1), have the potential to affect the operation of interconnected electric power systems. There are two key risks associated with GICs in the bulk electric system. The first is the potential for physical damage to transmission system devices such as high-voltage (HV) transformers. The second […]

Impact of GICs on Power Transformers:...

Impact of GICs on Power Transformers: Overheating is not the real issue.

There has been some misconception in the electric power industry that geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) can cause significant overheating damage to the majority of medium and large power transformers. Because of the nature of GICs, the majority of power transformers would not experience damaging overheating because of them. This article presents the real issue with […]

Geomagnetic Effects on Power Systems ...

Geomagnetic Effects on Power Systems [Technology Leaders]

In April 1940, power systems in parts of the United States and Canada experienced problems that coincided with disturbances in the Earth’s magnetic field that were traced back to activity on the sun a few days earlier. Since then, this solar connection to power systems has both fascinated and frustrated power system engineers trying to […]

Back to Results Optimal Placement of ...

Back to Results Optimal Placement of GIC Blocking Devices for Geomagnetic Disturbance Mitigation

This paper presents an optimization approach for the placement of geomagnetically induced current (GIC) blocking devices (BDs) on power system transformers to mitigate the adverse effects of a geomagnetic disturbance (GMD). Solar storms lead to GMDs which, in turn, drive GICs along transmission lines and through transformer windings. GICs cause half-cycle saturation in power transformers, […]

Behavior of Single-Phase Transformers...

Behavior of Single-Phase Transformers Under Geomagnetically Induced Current Conditions

Based on a proposed analytical approach and time- domain simulation, this paper investigates the operating condition of single-phase transformers under steady-state and quasi-dc transient of the geomagnetically induced current (GIC). The analytical approach employs a two-slope piecewise linear magnetization characteristic and facilitates the development of generic characteristics for system studies to reduce the risk of […]